Purification method: a large variety of chemicals, but the processing methods usually through neutralization reaction, oxidation reaction, reduction reaction or absorption cable to achieve the cleansing effect.
1. neutralization reaction
If acidic or alkaline chemicals are leaked, neutralization reactions can be considered to neutralize the leaks into hazardous substances, thereby reducing the harm of leakage chemicals. The purpose of neutralization is to produce acidity and alkalinity as close to neutral as possible through the interaction of acid and alkali. The neutralization procedure adopted depends on the pH, concentration, diffusion area and leakage of the leakage.
Before neutralizing leaks, we must first use sand and soil and other non - combustion substances to block them, and then slowly add neutralizer. Neutralization agents for acid substances include lime, soda ash, calcium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate or limestone. Because high concentration strong acid will react violently with water, dry neutralizer can only be used. As for the neutralization of alkaline solution, the diluted hydrochloric acid or acetic acid solution can be used as a neutralizer. When the reaction is completed, it can be used for absorbing and shoveling without a combustion supporting substance, and then the proper container is loaded and sealed to be discarded.
The staff must pay attention to the heat energy produced in the neutralization reaction, which can produce harmful smoke and spatter easily, so the personal protective equipment must be worn in the reaction process.
2. oxidation reaction
The purification method of the oxidation reaction is to use the chemical reaction to add oxygen to the compound, thereby reducing the harm of the leakage. The leaks that can be treated by oxidation include cyanide solution, phenol and other organic matter. However, the oxidation reaction is more difficult to control and often reproduces a large amount of heat, toxic intermediates and toxic gases in the reaction process. If an oxidizing reaction is used to deal with a large number of leaks, the executor must be trained, or under the supervision of a chemical expert.
3. reduction reaction
The reduction reaction and the chemical reaction will release electrons into the leaked material, thereby reducing its harm. A solution that can be treated by a reduction reaction is a solution of heavy metal, such as mercury, lead or chromium. However, the reduction reaction is as difficult to control as an oxidation reaction, and a large amount of heat, toxic intermediates and toxic gases can be produced during the reaction process. If a reduction reaction is used to deal with a large number of leaks, the executor must be trained, or under the supervision of a chemical expert.
4. suction method
Leakage of liquid chemicals is often used when absorbing agents. Before the use of the absorption agent, it should be understood whether the absorption agent can be compatible with the leakage. There are many chemical absorber packages available on the market, and chemicals suppliers will also have special chemical absorption kit. However, in most cases, clean and dry sand is widely used as a suction agent. It should be noted that, although wood chips can be used as absorbent, it will never be used to deal with active and oxidizing substances and control the explosion. In addition, the chemical properties of the leaked material have not changed after the use of the absorption agent, and the staff should be treated carefully.